The LGBT Sandwich

Lettuce, grated cheese, bread, and turkey make a delicious sandwich. Unfortunately, Supreme Court of India has ordered LGBTs to cold turkey their sexual activities; else, they will face criminal prosecution. The poor souls are sandwiched between the Delhi High Court order that liberated them four years back and the Supreme Court latest order banishing them into dark ages. Maybe banning judges from issuing judgments on the last day of service that impact nearly 10% of the nation’s population would benefit. Can India in this day and age declare 12 million Indians as potential criminals because of sexual preferences?

The politicians have jumped at the opportunity to make their vote banks stronger for the coming national elections in May 2014. Sonia Gandhi said Parliament would pass a law to decriminalize homosexuality. Great, why wasn’t it passed earlier? BJP and some more parties have declared it is a sin. Since BJP professes to stand for Hindutva, have they read the Hindu scriptures on this topic. Politicians and judges are playing with the personal lives of 12 million Indians as if they are cattle.

1.  Is it a Sin?

If God created humans, then why did he create LGBTs if they are supposedly immoral? Do we say a person is evil because he has one blue eye and one black eye? Are differently abled people born criminals? In the worst-case scenario, one can say LGBTs are sexually differently abled. No, I am not propagating this viewpoint. There is nothing wrong with LGBTs physically, morally or intellectually. They are as normal as heterosexuals are. Heterosexuals’ intolerant attitude towards homosexuals is wrong.

Heterosexuals must stop blaming the victim under the guise of religion. In ancient India LGBTs were part of the mainstream population and respected. For instance, in Mahabharata, Arjun dresses up as a woman for one year to disguise himself. Amba, whom Bhishma refused to marry, is reborn as Shikhandini. She exchanged her sex with a Yaksha who wanted to be a female, to punish Bhishma for rejecting her in the previous birth. Lord Shiva’s one form is of Ardhanarishvara – meaning the lord who is half woman. In one story, Lord Vishnu becomes Mohini, has sexual relationship with Lord Shiva and has children from him.

The Ottoman Empire funded Islam propagation in Middle East from the 13th century. It decriminalized homosexuality during Tanzimat period (1839-76). In Persia, homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were accepted in public places. Male houses of prostitution were legally recognized and paid taxes. (1501-1723)

Hence, how can it be possible when the same religions are being followed from middle ages, previously homosexuality was an acceptable act, and now in 21st century it becomes a criminal act?

Section 377 was imposed by the British Raj in India in 1857 to stop the British homosexuals fleeing to India. Now the western world has accepted homosexuality and Indian politicians are propagating repressive policy to meet their political ambitions. As usual, they have got it backwards.

2.  It is torture?

In my teens, I turned rather precocious. When my father and I went out, I checked out guys on the road.

When dad noticed my behaviour, he was horrified. Here is the conversation that followed:

Dad: What are you doing Sonia?

Irrepressible me: My eyes turn sore from studying, I am checking out eye candies to relax them.

Aghast dad: Your sister would never do such a thing.

Brazen me: Yeah, isn’t she a duh. What a waste of good looks!

Horrified dad: Your mom….

Unfazed me: If I had mom’s looks, I could get into so much trouble.

After a few weeks, dad found a practical solution to my problem. Whenever we went out, I was driving and he sat in the front seat, looking around. When I asked him why, he responded – “Health issues, heart problem, doctors told me to reduce stress.” Meow!

Every heterosexual child has a similar story to tell. As the child becomes an adolescent, parents try to gear their emotions, desires, and social behaviour according to the cultural norms of the society. The heterosexual adolescent runs to his/her parents for solace when facing the first heartbreak and rejection.

In contrast, see the nightmare an adolescent faces when s/he realizes that they are attracted to the same sex and not the customary opposite sex. Erik Erikson, the world-renowned psychologist developed the eight stages of psychological identity development model. According to him, between the age of 13-19 years, adolescents address the questions – “Who am I? What can I be?” through social relationships. This is the stage of developing one’s own identity and if a person is unable to do so, they live with role confusion during adult age. Between 20-39 years, an adult addresses the question – “Can I love?” through romantic relationships. During this stage, a person forms intimate relationships or if s/he is unable to answer the question, lives an isolated life.

An LGBT teenager learns to attach shame and guilt for their sexual desires. The teenagers realize that if they confide in their parents, they might reject them. Their friends will socially isolate and ridicule them, their teachers will rusticate them from school, and outsiders will exploit them. The intolerant society gives them a gag order for life. The children have no adult or peer to talk to and have to live through this nightmare all alone.

As an adult, LGBTs realize that they are capable of becoming celebrated artists, musicians, philosophers, scientists, corporate leaders and sports person as long as they are willing to live a lie. With their capabilities and talent, they can earn power, fame, and money. However, they don’t have the right to hold hands of a person they love. The heterosexuals have taken their right to live a happy and fulfilling life.

Heterosexuals don’t need to put homosexuals behind bars as criminals. They have already chained them for life and prescribed them extreme psychological torture. In desperation, they join social groups, religious orders and change countries to get social acceptance and a well-defined identity. Some fervently pray to God for mercy, some turn atheists. Others in anger wish to punish heterosexuals in the same way. They want to hurt the opposite gender for making them feel inadequate. The ultimate revengeful desire would be to make heterosexuals face social rejection and isolation, to show them the torturous lives homosexuals have to live.

Unfortunately, humans are geared towards blaming the victim. In rape cases, the woman is blamed – why did she go out, why was she walking alone of the road, why was she wearing a revealing dress? Humans tend to blame others for their misfortunes, because they wish to live in a predictable world and protect themselves from feeling personally threatened. The idea behind is to tell ourselves that if we take care of ourselves, things will work out reasonably well and our world will be safe. Another woman can’t accept the fact that she escaped being a rape victim by sheer luck and she has no control on the external threat. Similarly, heterosexuals can’t accept that they are so because of sheer luck, and they could easily be homosexuals. There is still no concrete evidence that nature or nurture turns a person into a homosexual.

As we say in case of women equality, that we need men to come forward and change the thinking of other men, women alone can’t fight for equality. We need to take a similar stance for LGBTs. Heterosexuals need to come forward and embrace the cause of LGBTs equality. All that LGBTs are looking for is social acceptance. Why not give it to them?

3.   Organizations role

A decade back, I was working in Intel. One day my boss asked me to check LGBT policies as she needed to find a solution to a small issue. Stunned, I asked – “Which policies?” I had never read an organization’s LGBT policies in my career. Amused at my cluelessness, she gave me the intranet site name.

I was impressed with the site. Intel as usual had dealt with a difficult topic humanely, sensitively, openly and constructively. The introduction of the site was written by one of the heads of chip design division, a lesbian lady. She narrated her story of coming out, the stigma and social rejection she faced in her life, and what heterosexuals need to do the make LGBTs feel part of the organization. There were other similar mind-blowing stories. Additionally, a lot of reading material, policies, and guidance notes were available on the site to educate the employees.

Think would a customer refuse to purchase an Intel laptop because a division headed by a lesbian developed the processing speed. Our response would be – “Who gives a f##k, we want fast machines”. Exactly, we shouldn’t be concerned!

Closing thoughts

Indian Government and politicians need to move out of the bedroom of consenting adults. The Indian police are unable to manage and solve rape cases, and now it wishes to deal with the whole LGBT population as criminals. Hitler and Stalin ordered the death of millions to cleanse the population. Is the stance of government to treat LGBTs as criminals any better? Intolerance and disrespect are the main reasons for anger, hatred, and violence in the world. Heterosexuals show intolerance and disrespect every day to LGBTs. Let us collectively weave them in the social fabric of our lives and culture.

India’s Political Risks in 2014

A fortnight back Aam Admi Party’s (AAP) magnificent political debut in Delhi pulled the rug under the feet of seasoned politicians. Old established politicians with dynastic lineage are scanning the environment to see which young inexperienced common person will oust them from their plush leather chairs. The AAP victory is a game changer, injecting fresh blood in Indian democracy. The citizens, sick and tired of corruption are demanding good governance. With national elections coming up in May 2014, the political risks of the country are changing.

A.      AAP’s Applecart

Arvind Kejriwal - The New Hero

Arvind Kejriwal – The New Hero

Gen X arrived on the political arena and won the first battle. The victorious 28 AAP MLAs are 26-49 years old. They do not have a political background, family connections, or money. They are regular middle class people who took their first baby steps in activism in the Anna Hazare Anti-Corruption Movement.

AAPs symbol, the broom, stands for cleaning the corrupt system. In one stroke, it has swept the old political system and established rules. Within a week, anti-corruption Lok Pal Bill was passed with Congress spearheading the passage of the bill. The bill had been pending for over five decades. While Arvind Kejriwal and Prashant Bhushan were the brains behind the moment, Rahul Gandhi was quick to take the credit.

The AAP leader Arvind Kejriwal, by taking public referendum to form the government, out manoeuvred BJP and Congress. By announcing that AAP will participate in national elections, Kejriwal has become a national leader with mass appeal. With people demanding change and a corruption free government, AAPs is a significant threat to established parties.

From business perspective, in AAP governed states cronyism and corruption will decrease. However, the number of raids and investigations might increase. One is likely to see some high level prosecutions with the implementation of Lok Pal bill. Hence, it will pay to keep high business ethics, and reduce illicit money transactions and bribes.

B.     BJP’s Bandwagon

 BJP Prime Ministerial candidate, showed his leadership mettle in the state elections. BJP win in four of the five states clearly showed that the tide is in its favour.  Modi is riding on the propagated success of Gujarat Model, Hindu middle class and business support.

Narendra Modi - The Callenger

Narendra Modi – The Callenger

However, though Modi is projecting himself as an agent of change, Kejriwal is outshining him in that sphere. In addition, AAP voters come from all income groups, religions, and regions. Hence, Modi presently has a smaller pie of the vote bank.

BJP is also showing that it is unable to walk the talk of change. It is entering into alliances with candidates and parties with a criminal track record. Secondly, to connect the youth across India, it has started the project to build Sardar Patel statue by organizing runs and collecting iron pieces across India. It is trying to attack Kejriwal’s youth following obtained through social activism reputation by this initiative. The Gen Y does not connect with freedom fighters; it wants the current issues addressed.

Hence, it will be an interesting battle to watch. Businesses in BJP ruled states could expect some speedy action on pending proposals, a superficial reduction in corruption, and a significant focus on business growth. BJP isn’t positively aligned towards US; hence, some tensions are envisaged. Moreover, if it comes to power at national level it is expected to gun for Congress leaders and the corruption cases.

 C.      Congress’s Circus

COngress - In Better Times

Congress – In Better Times

In the state elections, the Congress politicians came out looking like a pack of jokers. The Congress hubris, corruption cases, and Rahul Gandhi’s ill preparedness to don the leadership mantle resulted in its downfall.

Suddenly, the Gandhis’ are putting on the activist’s cloak. In the Supreme Court ruling of LGBT cases, they were on the forefront fighting for LGBT rights. After letting US walk all over for last ten years, in Khobragade case, it is drawing blood. At the last moment, support to pass the bill for allowing politicians with criminal records to contest was withdrawn. An attempt to change image and control reputation damage in the last six months isn’t going to work.

The Congress Prime Ministerial candidate is still unknown. A feeler was sent out about Nandan Nilekani being the Prime Ministerial candidate. He might sail through with business tycoons, but will appear as a US supported candidate. The US governments attempt to play big brother’s role in Indian democracy doesn’t go down well with Indian voters. Rahul Gandhi isn’t a people’s magnet. He has not proved his leadership capabilities. Hence, Congress might be facing some dilemmas in selecting a candidate with national appeal. Finally, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has called it a day and isn’t seeking a third term.

Congress most probably is going to take a beating. In the states it survives, corruption is going to continue and it is going to take a while for them to introduce good governance. Leaders are going to be scrambling for cover, as AAP and BJP are both interested in investigating them to get mileage. In the states it loses, a few projects permissions might be withdrawn or closed. These are the states where business sector will face maximum political risks.

Closing Thoughts

The ABC of Indian politics is changing. It will be enthralling and heart-warming to watch the 2014 elections. Indian democracy is finally coming of age and voters have tasted their power to overthrow established models. With multi-party environment and many more parties in the ring, the competition is going to be keen.

However, a few messages are clearly coming out. Those aligning with corrupt leaders or leaders with criminal records are going to lose the public backing. Political battle plans and strategies need to be redrawn, as the old isn’t going to work. Fighting on religion and caste won’t ensure victory. The parties manifesto focus must be on good governance, economic and business growth, corruption free environment and empowerment of the masses.  The economy is expected to pick up only after the elections near the last quarter of 2014. Hence, be prepared for a slow year in business.

2014 Business Predictions Based On Bollywood Movies

In the age of big data, data mining, social media, market studies and customer feedback, it may sound surreal to analyse business trends from Bollywood movies. Strange as it may seem, Bollywood movies provide a wealth of information on cultural change, latest fads, and customer tastes. Agree, the movies aren’t intellectually stimulating or sensible; most of them are over the top but let us not be scornful about the hyperbole and read the real picture. Tell me what you make out this analysis.

1.      Women Rule

The male bastion crumbled this year;  in most of the movies the actress portrayed a strong character, frequently superior than the actor. In Ramleela, the heroine was a gun wielding female don’s daughter capable of pulling the trigger on betrayal. In Yeh Jiwani Hai Diwani, the female character, a nerd, beat the male character in academics. In Ashiqui 2, the female protagonist, a singer outperforms the male protagonist. Leading ladies are taking centre stage, they are no longer willing to play second fiddle and be decorative while the hero steals the show.

Ramleela

In business parlance, do not ignore the female customer or the female employees. Indian women are making the buying decisions, therefore ensure that the advertising pitch appeals to them and the sales process is women centric.

Additionally, after the changes in sexual harassment act and the companies act, women are gearing for a stronger role in corporate world. The Companies Act requires at least one woman to be on the board, hence develop the top talent. The sexual harassment act has empowered women and cases are making headlines. Change the work culture to ensure equality, educate staff on sexual harassment, and form legal recourse systems. Insure senior staff from sexual harassment claims and do a background check to determine propensity for sexual harassment.

2.      Think Local

Top actors and actresses made a beeline for roles with stories in rural villages and small towns. A few years back they would have turned up their noses on a project that wasn’t with a foreign country backdrop. Most of the blockbuster’s set in small towns – Chennai Express, Ramleela, Gori Tere Pyaar Mein, Ranjhana, Phata Poster Nikla Hero, etc. – had tremendous box office success.

The Indian directors’ cultural understanding of customers is excellent. The trend shows Indian customers awe for foreign brands and products is reducing. The customers want products Indianized to their taste. The burger and pizza sales give ample evidence. Over 50% of the revenues of multinational fast food chains are coming from vegetarian products. For instance, McDonald’s highest grosser, Aloo (Potato) Tikki Burger recipe was made in India.

Customize products to cater to small town customers rather than the metros to get higher turnovers. In local markets, value for money concept works and not fancy brand names.

Astoundingly, employees working in metros are moving to small towns for better work-life balance. The craze for big cities, fast life is disappearing due to high cost of living, traffic and infrastructure problems, and superficial social relationships.

3.      Complete India Story

Northern India and Southern India directors and stories intersected this year. Within India, state borders are reducing in meaning. For instance, in Chennai Express the hero is from Delhi, the heroine is from Chennai. In Gori Teri Pyaar Mein, the male protagonist is from Bangalore and female protagonist is from Delhi. Bollywood is no longer targeting just North Indian customers; they are making headway in South India. A few Hindi movies were remakes of South Indian movies . Astonishingly, South Indian directors are making Hindi movies.

In the last decade, Indians are crossing inter-state borders frequently. Caste, region, and religion differences are diminishing. Business needs to rethink the marketing strategy. Products made for North Indian customers may do well in South India and vis-a-versa. Tastes are changing and acceptability levels for different products are improving. For instance, previously consumer durable major market was in North India. However, the latest survey shows the top states are– Punjab, Kerala, Haryana, Karnataka and Tamil Naidu.

4.      Focus on Gen-Y

Sweet and nice, stereotypical and rehash doesn’t sell with Gen-Y. Unique, controversial, adventurous, and nonconformist sails through. In Ranjhana, the female protagonist organizes the death of a childhood admirer to avenge the death of her adult lover. In Gori Tere Pyaar Mein, the heroine is a social activist, older than the hero, working in a remote village. In Lunchbox, the male character is a 50-year-old man falling in love with a married woman he has never seen. In Krissh 3, super heroes and villains, half human-half animal battle it out. Sporting legends biopic (Bhaag Mikka Bhaag)  and historical political drama (Madras Café) entered the arena. The conventional isn’t making its mark.

krissh 3

Indian Gen Y have information of international products on the tips of their fingers. Secondly, their tastes are similar across country. Previously, there was a vast difference in tastes of the younger generation in metros and smaller towns due to limited information. Now Google Translate has removed those barriers.

Hence, business sector needs to invest in research and innovation, an area they haven’t focused on earlier. The products must be of international quality, fresh and new, at local prices. The business that has the courage to differentiate, leave traditional thinking behind will get massive returns. Businesses centering on adventure sports, exclusive hobbies, social entrepreneurship, video games, and technology apps are expected to do well.

Moreover, organizations to attract and retain Gen Y need to transform the bureaucratic and hierarchical culture. Build a culture on openness, transparency, creativity, risk taking, and empowerment.

 5.      Foray Globally

The top grosser of the year – Dhoom 3 did good business in the international market. Now the Indian movies have rap music with Hindi lyrics, use latest technology (Krissh 3), and have glitzy action. Indian award shows have built Bollywood brand abroad. A few Indian actors and directors have gained international repute.

According to a McKinsey report, 30% of the revenues of top 100 companies in India is coming from international business. Indian companies are either taking over foreign companies or establishing their own in other countries. Hence, time has come to venture abroad keeping in mind the international tastes. Don’t sell the Indian product in its standard form. Customize it according to the international tastes by using their knowledge and technology.

Closing Thoughts

Risk managers’ check out the business strategy and plans for 2014. If the products pipeline, advertisements, sales processes, customer interactions, research and development, and talent management, isn’t considering the above-mentioned aspects, there might be some risks. Lastly, be adventurous and try out new approaches.

Wishing all my readers a very happy and prosperous new year.

Blood on Our Hands

A man smashed a crowbar on a woman’s head. Her skull split and she died on the spot. Who was the violent predator? Her husband, the man who had vowed to love, cherish and honor her. What did she do wrong? She insisted on doing Masters in Technology while the husband was just a Bachelor in Electronics. The man, a lecturer in college, purportedly respects education.

Violence is the biggest risk in the world. Death and destruction destroys the life not only of the individual but the whole family. Mahatma Gandhi said “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth will make the whole world blind and toothless.” However, non-violence is freaking difficult path to follow when others are hurting and harming us. So leaders proclaim, non-violence is outdated, it isn’t a solution for every problem, some situations require violent action. Violent behavior just sounds an easier option, till our life is scorched by it.

1.   Disrespect – The Source of Violence

Source of all violence is disrespect for the other. Treating a person as inferior, a slave or an object, are all ways to dehumanize a person. Disrespect arises from discrimination. To give a person an unfair treatment based on their age, gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, culture, or color results in disrespecting the person. Disrespect gets reflected in unconscious biases, verbal communication, social inclusion in groups, active harm, and physical violence.

The life of the victim becomes like a man walking barefoot in a desert – the sand burns the soles of his feet, the hot wind drains his life’s vital fluids, blood drops flow from his eyes. With no way to quench his thirst or get respite in shade, anger erupts like a volcano. To find balm for his hurts and destruction of his life, he dedicates his life to revenge. Now the vicious cycle of violence can’t be broken.

2.    Our Leaders Perpetuate Violence

Unfortunately, our leaders have taught us violence. During the world wars, the four prominent leaders – Hitler, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt, all had blood on their hands. Hitler killed Jews, Stalin directed murder of over two million people, and the other two allies ordered atomic bombing in Japan. In contrast, Gandhi, well versed in western culture and politics, pursued non-violence to gain independence. Having the courage to fight for rights under the circumstances, and believing in the goodness of humanity, was an incredible feat. A lessor man would have keeled.

Remarkably, despite knowing the horrors of war, human race hasn’t learnt much. In the last decade itself, United States, the super power has sanctioned over 30 military operations in other countries. In 2000, as per the World Health Organization over 1.6 million people died violently. Now the numbers must have increased. This is the world man has created. Since most leaders are male, this warring and violent nature can be attributed to masculine gender. Funnily, they are proud of it.

3.   Humans Learn Violent Behaviour

A child sees violence at home when parents or siblings fight, or when the parents physically harm the child to punish and teach lessons. Besides physical violence, the verbal heated disputes create disharmony in the little soul. Then, the school bullies are like birds sitting on a high wire, looking for a passer-by to poop on. By the time a child reaches the age of 15 years, he has seen 15000 murders on television. Is it surprising then, that kids are carrying weapons to school and shooting their classmates.

When adults indulge in violence, they have various excuses, blame games and explanations. Justifications are sought based on cultural habits, status in society or philosopher’s views. For example, Ayan Rand’s ideas allegedly support egotism, selfishness and self-centeredness. People use it as an excuse for harming others. In her book – Fountainhead, Howard Roark, the hero propagating the thought of living life on one’s own terms and working for the passion of creating something new and original, does not harm anyone, conduct any crime, or do unethical activity. He is the only one whose actions are clean and above board. Philosophers do not prescribe crime or give permission to conduct crime. Readers interpret different meanings depending on what suits their thought process and purpose in life.

4.   Choose Non-violence in Life

Humans can respond to negativity in their life in four ways. If water is the environment, then a person can behave like salt, sponge, iron, or sugar. That is, person’s personality can dissolve, absorb, toughen up with negativity, or spread positivity. When fighting a monster, a person has the choice of becoming a dragon of destruction or an angel of mercy. The strength of a person’s moral character determines the reaction to negativity.

Reasoning that one has not harmed another physically is not enough. Words sometimes cut sharper than a sword. Continuous verbal abuse can break a person, depress them, and make them suicidal. Five minutes of compassion and empathy bring more happiness than earning a thousand bucks. Hence, focusing on learning non-violent communication is the key to a better world. It will stop a verbal dispute escalating into a conflict and then war.

Marshall Rosenberg generously shared his three-hour training session on non-violent communication. Check it out, it is practical with a lot of sound advice and will make you laugh at human follies.

References

BE Lecturer kills wife for studying M.Tech

Routine Activity Theory Implications on Increasing Crime Rate in Indian Society

Cohen and Folsen’s Routine Activity Theory of Crime, appeals to me at an intellectual level to understand the increasing rate of crime in Indian society. However, it contradicts my personal philosophy about human beings. The theory presumes that every human being basically has a criminal tendency and is capable of crime. I believe that human beings are inherently good and each human being irrespective of the crimes they have committed is capable of good deeds. Hence, I will try to discuss the theory without bias and balance the two opposing views. If I sound partial towards my philosophy, then forgive me from the goodness of your heart.

1.      Introduction

The theory was based on analysis of US crime data of 1947-1974. During this period the average income of families increased, number of people below poverty line decreased, education levels improved, and unemployment levels decreased. However, the rate of violent crime in urban areas   increased – rape (174%), assault (164%), robbery (263%) and homicide (188%).

The Indian urban society is showing similar trends since liberalization in 1990s. While growth, income, economy, facilities, education etc. has significantly improved in urban areas, the rate of crime has increased exponentially. Before, in 1960s and 1970s, others would ostracize a middle class person if he were publicly involved in criminal activity. Now, nearly every second person is involved in a corrupt and unethical activity openly. Though we blame it on deteriorating social values, this theory helps us understand why we compromise the values and participate in a crime.

2.      Concept

The theory states that “structural changes in routine activity patterns can influence crime rates by affecting the convergence in space and time of three minimal elements of direct contact predatory violations: (1) motivated offenders, (2) suitable targets, and (3) the absence of capable guardians against a violation”. Lack of any one of these reduces crime. However, the level of control exercised by the guardians has a direct impact on crime. Even if motivated offenders and suitable targets remain the same, if control reduces, crime increases. The theory states that income of the offender does not have any impact on his desire to commit crime and contradicts the popular notion that people with less income have a higher propensity to commit crime.

Source: Wikepedia

Now this can be understood in Indian context. The number of people living away from their traditional homeland has increased as more people are living in nuclear families or as singles in different cities. The change in social behavior has changed the routine activity of people as social controls of family and community have decreased. These aspects reduce the worry of motivated offenders on how their community will judge them if they participate in unethical behavior. Secondly, the same aspect makes suitable targets more vulnerable to crime as protective layers have reduced. Hence, due to this changing social structure, motivated offenders and suitable targets have both increased. With it, the corruption in law enforcement agencies has reduced control. The sum total of it all has increased the crime rates in Indian urban areas.

3.      Effect

Then the theory states that motivated offenders cooperate to strengthen their efficiency in criminal activities. On the other hand, the potential victims join hands to gain collective strength to protect themselves from the attack. The challenge becomes bigger for potential victims when high-net worth individuals undertake criminal activities. The potential victims risk of victimization increases.

From the Indian context, the driver for change in social values has been the thirst for money and power. The higher level of ambition for being powerful and materialistically successful has motivated people to break the traditional social norms and move towards corruption and crime. Previously, the lack of a good criminal justice system was compensated by strict controls from family and community. Now all the three guardians have decreased control and the value of rewards gained from criminal activity is high. The other factor to consider is that voluntary help groups and social support groups are less in India; hence, the potential victims do not get the desired protection. As Cohen said – “it is ironic that the very factors which increase an opportunity to enjoy the benefits of life may also increase the opportunities for predatory violations”. Crime has become the by-product of freedom and prosperity as it has enmeshed itself in routine activities of daily life in Indian urban society.

Closing Thoughts

My personal belief is that for every action, especially criminal or unethical activity, a person needs to ask whether they need to involve themselves in it. When one accepts rewards for the wrong reasons, one cannot avoid punishment for the wrong reasons also. Hence, why go for the wrong rewards in the first place; and if one has received them, why not return them? When one is in a financially strong position and survival does not depend on income from criminal activity, why not refuse to undertake that activity. No one can involve another in a criminal activity if the participants do not wish for any monetary benefits. Hence, to enjoy the benefits of life, say no to crime and unethical activities.

References:

Routine activity theory - Crime Prevention Division – By Cohen and Folsen

 

Impact of Power Styles on Organization Risks

Power, we all want it. If we don’t have it, we associate with the powerful in the hope some of it rubs down to us. Being in the upper echelons of corporate world or the political corridors of the country’s parliamentary houses ensures that you are exempt from the rules applicable to the common person.

However, the way a person gets power and uses it reflects the person’s character, and its influence on others. In the corporate world, the power styles used by senior managers directly influence the risk levels of the organization. Unsurprisingly,  power and politics are undiscussable topics in the corporate world; hence, when risk managers do risk assessments, they ignore the two.

I personally recommend risk managers to understand the individual power styles of the senior managers and overall organization power style. To appreciate the connection between power and risk, let us first look at the power styles and their impact on the organization.

Power Sttyles

Depending on the situation, a leader needs to use various power styles. However, if a leader uses coercive style even when it is not required, then something is wrong. Leaders frequently use power styles of reward and punishment for fulfilling illegitimate requirements. Hence, the probability of followers being involved in unethical activities requiring compromise of personal values is higher. On the other hand, the expert style ensures that followers make informed judgments as the leader attempts to enhance their ethical values and knowledge level. The reward is not in the form of a bribe and is implicit; the leader is dedicated to improving the organization.

Another aspect that requires understanding is the need for creating perception of power. When a leader is undertaking illegitimate activities (watch any Hindi movie to see the underworld Don) he needs to create a strong perception of power by using threat and punishment. Else, his coercive tactics will be ineffective, as people will not cooperate. Therefore, he makes some sacrificial goats to demonstrate that he is above the law and normal rules don’t apply to him. Another tactic is to break the social norms, and not behave rationally and predictably. Both these methods focus on creating fear to ensure compliance. Without the perception of power and fear, the leader becomes vulnerable to revolt from the common person. The only way for him to retain his power is by increasing the number of sacrificial goats, threats, and punishments.

1.   Impact on Legal and Reputation Risks

A coercive leader is usually riding a tiger. The organization risks continue multiplying as more and more people become aware of the unethical practices. An elastic can be stretched up to a limit. Eventually, the concocted environment cocoon will burst and all hell will break loose. The leader cannot trust anyone after a point. Hence, his fear increases in direct proportion to his vulnerability. The leader takes more and more risks to protect his personal fiefdom. The organizations reputation risks and legal risks increase proportionately.

2.   Impact on Human Resource Risks

Overtime, the leader’s charisma wears off. As the layers peel off, disillusion sets in. Employees realize that the leader doesn’t behave with integrity and honesty. Even the loyalists recognize that whenever it suits the leader’s personal agenda, they can face the bullet without any fault of their own. This creates disquiet among employees, and employee disengagement increases. The human resource risks increase manifold with disengaged employees.

3.   Impact on Operational and Financial Risks

The disengagement starts effecting productivity and performance as everyone grasps that meritocracy has no links with rewards. This in turn impacts the bottom line as leader fails to deliver on targets. Failure to show profitability and results makes the leader’s position precarious. The leader starts feeling pressure from the top. As he is unable to improve productivity, he attempts to manipulate results and financial statements. In nutshell, leader’s power style influences operational risks and financial risks of the organization.

Closing Thoughts

No one can deny that success in life depends quite significantly on a person’s power and influence. The general opinion is that means to the end do not matter when we strive for power. On the contrary, how we get power and maintain power, is crucial for longevity in the powerful position. For a coercive leader, the end is tragic, as the hunter becomes the hunted. Moreover, if a leader gets power by paying bribes or giving rewards, his power ends when he stops doing so. His loyalists disappear with speed. Abusing power is no longer safe in the present world, as it increases the personal risks of the leader and the organization risks. Therefore, risk managers need to ensure for continued prosperity of the organization, that leaders get power by the rights means and use it for the right purposes.

Cultural Complexities and Conflicts

Two weeks back I had given my laptop for repair. The computer guy first said that he would repair it in a day for Rs 1500. Then he called up and said it will take two days. Then he called up and said it will take Rs 2500. I asked him to return the laptop without repairing and ended up paying Rs 350 as service charges as he had identified the problem. Last week I asked a person to recharge my TV subscription and I am still waiting for the same. Why am I ranting on the blog?

Reason is these things happen in India. Based on these experiences the foreigners visiting India formulate an opinion on India. Secondly, the foreigners either formulate opinions on Indians from media reports or base it on their experiences of Indians living abroad. Media thrives on negative information and hardly report on positive aspects. Indians living abroad are just a small slice of the country and they do not completely represent the culture at home.

Some westerners visit India to understand it better as it is a growing economic power. However, whenever I have read their views, I feel they have a superficial picture and do not really understand the cultural complexities of India. They attempt to dissect each part independently and try to fix the jigsaw puzzle. However, Indian culture is akin to a seven-layered cake. The multitudes of flavours need to be tasted as a whole.

In India, there is a saying. To understand the water flowing in Ganga check the origin from Gangotri. To understand the culture of the country and the behaviour of the people, one needs to see the history of at least 100 years. I know in this age we believe world is changing so fast that people change quickly. However, I was reading Gandhi ji’s autobiographies and was surprised that most of the causes of conflict and misunderstandings between western people and Indians remain the same. For example, I understand what is being said by a westerner but sometimes I don’t get the logic behind the behaviour. From an Indian context, it just doesn’t make sense.

1)     The Western Civilization

The difference lies in the approach to life. The western civilization conquered the world in past centuries with the primary motive of getting richer. Though they entered as traders in countries, they soon became rulers. Establishing supremacy by war, brute force, aggression and breaking the spirit of locals were considered good tactics. The morality of their decisions and the suffering caused to human race wasn’t an aspect that got importance. The enemy had to be destroyed by whatever means possible.

So even today, the western corporates mostly have an aggressive organization culture with profit motive. Money is still the primary driver for most activities. The star performers are aggressive men who achieve their positions by cutthroat completion in the dog eat dog world. Ethical competition was until the last few decades an alien concept. Deception, cunning, and breaking the rules are valued traits for winning the game. There are few women at the top, as feminine traits were never respected. They are considered too soft.

2)     The Indian Civilization

In contrast, the Indian civilization since ancient times valued simplicity and the focus was on progress of the soul. In young age, a person was required to set up family, have a career and earn sufficient amount to keep the family in comfort. In old age, an Indian gave up all attachments and desires to focus on purifying the soul. Hence, during their lifetime Indians were required to develop virtues of truthfulness, simplicity, humility, patience, perseverance, frugality, and  other worldliness.

Cunning, aggression and deception were looked down. As Gandhi said – “a thing secured by a particular weapon can be retained only by that weapon” hence enemies weren’t destroyed but converted to friends wherever possible. That is why Indians used non-violence in the struggle for independence. Even when wars were fought, rules were to be followed and the person breaking the rules was considered unprincipled and cowardly. Breaching trust was shameful, contrary to the western opinion where the person whose trust is broken is considered a fool for trusting.

In respect of leadership also, since centuries India has propagated servant leadership and not that of arrogance and supremacy.

3)     The Global Organization

With globalization, one can see these two divergent approaches to life in close quarters interacting daily. I have heard many of my western colleagues comment about a mild-mannered Indian – “X is not aggressive enough, will he get the job done?” Whereas the Indian colleagues say – “What is wrong with this person, why do we need to fight? We can cooperate and get the work done peacefully.”  Team workers are always more valued than star performers. Cooperation is encouraged than competitive behaviour.

Each group doesn’t get the motives and thought process behind the other group’s behaviour. Westerners can’t figure out how Indians succeed in business with all these traits and attributes. They predict failure, and see success in the long run. Quite a few Indians considered unemployable by western standards (unassertive, weak, too humble, or polite) have successful careers in India.

While both groups now attempt to understand the behaviour of other, it is quite impossible to change it in a short time. A person brings to an organization the culture s/he has been raised in. The personal values and attributes can’t disappear on joining and neither can they be left at home during office hours. Respecting the person’s culture and giving space is the best approach.

Closing thoughts

The oriental nations – India and China – are the biggest emerging markets. The western world can’t ignore it and neither can they change it. Hence, they have to understand it and learn to survive in the oriental culture. It is among the biggest opportunities today to bring peace and prosperity in the world. In my view, to reduce the cultural risks and related conflicts more Indians should educate the western population about their historical and social culture. This will give deeper understanding and remove prejudices. The 21st century is bringing change; it is up to us on how we manage it.

Satyagraha For Freedom From Corruption

Gandhi ji, in his book “History of Satyagraha in South Africa” narrates the coinage of the term Satyagraha and the journey of the movement. It is an amazing story of sacrifice, determination, and moral courage. Hence, I wondered whether we can use the concept to fight corruption in this century.

The irony is that Gandhi ji started the Satygraha movement in South Africa because Europeans passed unfavourable laws for Indians. They were scared of Indian traders and professionals taking a huge slice of the business, hence passed laws to restrict their liberty to live and trade freely. Greed was at the crux of it since there were plenty of natural resources in South Africa for Europeans, Blacks, and Indians. Now India is being destroyed by the greed of its leaders and public.

Gandhi ji’s story stands in stark contrast to the Anna Hazare led fight against corruption. Hazare’s was packaged as Gandhian inspired struggle but as results showed it was far from it. Hazare took the stance of my way and high way on the Lokpal Bill, whereas Gandhi ji believed in negotiation. Moreover, Hazare’s was a publicity driven exercise of a few fasts and he quickly distanced himself from it when he faced failure. Another aspect was that though thousands turned up in support at the initial stage, no one made use of that energy constructively and directed people to do something more than shout slogans on the streets. Hence, the euphoria disappeared after a short while, as the educated middle class needed an action plan to maintain their commitment.

It brings back to our understanding of Satyagraha. We generally confuse it with “passive resistance” and it was the same situation when Gandhi ji developed the concept a century back. Below are few points from the book:

1)      Satyagraha

Gandhi ji considered Satyagraha as a soul-force. The Satyagrahies never used physical force even when they had the capability for it. In Gandhi ji’s word – “Satyagraha is soul-force pure and simple, and whenever and to whatever extent there is room for the use of arms or physical force or brute force, there and to that extent is there so much less possibility for soul-force. These are purely antagonistic forces in my view, and I had full realization of this antagonism even at the time of the advent of Satyagraha

2)     Passive resistance

The term “passive resistance” originated in Europe as a weapon of the weak. It was generally used when other options of fighting were not available. It was a method used by people without voting rights, or lacking public support. The people were not averse to using arms for attaining their goals. But they did not go for it because they didn’t think they would succeed with it. Hence, passive resistance was more of a strategic manoeuvre than commitment to non-violence.

3)    Difference between the two

Gandhi ji described the fundamental difference in the concepts in the following paragraphs -

 “The power of suggestion is such that a man at last becomes what he believes himself to be. If we continue to believe ourselves and let others believe that we are weak and therefore offer passive resistance, our resistance will never make us strong, and at the earliest opportunity we will give up passive resistance as a weapon of the weak.

 On the other hand if we are satyagrahis and offer satyagraha believing ourselves to be strong, two clear consequences result from it. Fostering the idea of strength, we grow stronger and stronger every day. With the increase in our strength, our satyagraha too becomes more effective and we would never be casting about for an opportunity to give it up.

 Again, there is no scope for love in passive resistance; on the other hand, not only has hatred no place in satyagraha, but it is a positive breach of its ruling principle. While in passive resistance there is a scope for the use of  arms when a suitable occasion arrives, in satyagraha physical force is forbidden even in the most favourable circumstances. Passive resistance is often looked upon as a preparation for the use of force while satyagraha can never be utilized as such. Passive resistance may be offered side by side with the use of arms. Satyagraha and brute force, being each a negation of the other, can never go together.

 Satyagraha may be offered to one’s nearest and dearest; passive resistance can never be offered to them unless of course they have ceased to be dear and become an object of hatred to us.

 In passive resistance there is always present an idea of harassing the other party and there is a simultaneous readiness to undergo any hardships entailed upon us by such activity; while in satyagraha there is not the remotest idea of injuring the opponent. Satyagraha postulates the conquest of the adversary by suffering in one’s own person.”

 4)    Freedom From Corruption

Considering the above definition of Satyagraha and the differences highlighted by Gandhi ji, I haven’t seen very many noteworthy cases of mass movement of Satyagraha. Hazare’s movement just entailed short-term sacrifice and not a long-term struggle. When the public disappeared so did he.

The Satyagrahies courted prison and lived a simple life to fight for their cause. Hence, the question is that do we lack commitment and determination for long-term struggle to root out wrong habits. Is it possible and realistic to expect people to make these sacrifices in the present age of instant gratification. Can we expect Indian public to take a vow not to take or give bribes and kickbacks? Will it be expecting too much from the citizens to sacrifice a few luxuries. Will the public stay committed to the cause or leave it when it gets bored, to participate in the next novel thing.

We need to seriously think of eradicating corruption on this Independence Day. India has come a long way in one century but the corruption is eroding its sheen and destroying the country from within. We must not forget the sacrifices a whole generation of Indians made to ensure that the next generations live with freedom. Let us pledge to keep our souls free of greed.

Wishing all Indians a Very Happy Independence Day.

References:

History of Satyagraha in South Africa by M.K. Gandhi 

India’s Failures In Disaster Management

Floods in North India have left over 70,000 people stranded and 550 dead. Loss to property will run in billions. The on-going rescue efforts are yielding results but very slowly.  The uncoordinated recovery response and efforts indicate lack of disaster management capabilities of the state.

India as a country does not have a properly implemented disaster management system. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India recent report - “Performance Audit Report on Disaster Management of India” highlights glaring deficiencies. Below are some of the key observations from the report. It is sufficient to make Indian citizens sleepless at night.

1.      An Introduction

India with its geo-climatic conditions, high density of population, socio-economic disparities,  politics and troubled relationship with neighboring countries, has high risk of natural and man-made disasters. In respect to natural disasters, it is vulnerable to forest fires, floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis and cyclones. Man-made disaster risks are (1)war, bombing, terrorist attacks, and riots, (2) chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear crises, (3) hijacks, train accidents, airplane crashes and shipwrecks, etc.

Government passed the Disaster Management (DM) Act in 2005. According to the act, National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was formed under the Prime Minister and the National Executive Committee (NEC) developed National Policy of Disaster Management, which was approved in 2009.

2.      Failure in Formation of Disaster Recovery Plan

Until mid-2012, the National Executive Committee (NEC) had not prepared India’s National Plan for Disaster Management. Surprisingly, though India has faced a major disaster each year since development of DM Act, NEC has not met after May 2008. The Working Group it formed in 2007 never met after that.

Then the buck was passed to Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) to prepare a National Response Plan (NRP). It directed National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) to prepare the NRP. NIDM submitted a draft plan in April 2012, which was circulated by MHA to other departments.

The other two components of the National Plan for Disaster Management are National Mitigation Plan and National Capacity Building Plan. While the latter is still under preparation, some departments have submitted the mitigation plans.

Things are equally bad at State level. Just 14 states have submitted their State Disaster Management Plan.  The lackadaisical attitude shows government’s complete disregard towards national and human safety.

3.      Performance of National Disaster Management Authority

The CAG report states that – “So far, no major project taken by NDMA has seen completion. It was noticed that NDMA selected projects without proper groundwork, and as a result either the projects were abundant midway or were incomplete after a considerable period of time.”

The projects included earthquake vulnerability risk assessment, micro zonation of major cities, landslide risk assessment, national flood risk mitigation, national school safety program, mobile radiation detection system, national disaster communication system, etc. The natures of the projects indicate their criticality and importance for disaster management. Even the hazard maps for earthquakes, landslides, cyclone, tsunami and floods are incomplete or unavailable. Without these maps, the government is not even in a position to identify the high-risk areas.

The main reasons for delays in disaster management project planning are lack of committed groups, failure in communicating and coordinating with various ministries, shortage of staff and insufficient knowledge and expertise in these fields. Though funds were approved and allocated for various phases, things just haven’t got beyond conceptualization stage.

4.      Mis-utilization of Funds

Government constituted National Disaster Response Fund and State Disaster Response Fund to deal with the disasters. The government approved Rs 33,580.93 crores for State Disaster Response Funds for a period of five years – 2010-2015. The report indicates that Ministry of Home Affairs is not receiving appropriate information from states on utilization of funds. Audit findings reveal that some states have misutilized funds for expenditures that were not sanctioned for disaster management. There was in a few cases significant delay in releasing funds. Additionally, some States didn’t invest the funds thereby incurring huge interest losses. This shows financial indiscipline in states management of funds.

Secondly, a separate National Disaster Mitigation Fund was to be constituted for reconstruction and restoration activities after the disaster. However, this has not been done till date. The States were required to form State Disaster Mitigation Fund and District Disaster Mitigation Fund. Quite a few states haven’t created the funds. Uttarakhand, the state reeling from floods, has just a State Disaster Mitigation Fund.

The situation is so bad, that the National Disaster Response Reserve of Rs 250 crores to buy relief material (blankets, tents, etc.) was not operational until audit time.

5.      Disaster Management Communication

Department of Space commenced a Disaster Management Support programme in March 2003. The main seven projects started between 2003 to 2007 are incomplete till 2012. These are namely – National Disaster Management Informatics System, National Disaster Communication Network, Doppler Weather Radars, Satellite Based Network for Disaster Communication, Disaster Management Synthetic Aperture Radar, Airborne laser Terrain Mapping and Digital camera System and National Disaster for Emergency Management. Presently, if a disaster strikes and regular communication networks go down, there are no contingency methods available for communication to a disaster-hit area.

6.      National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)

Ten Central Armed Police Forces battalions were formed of 1149 posts each. 27% of the posts were vacant in May 2012. The NDRF personnel don’t have sufficient training, facilities, equipment, and residential accommodation. With these constraints, it is difficult to imagine that they can effectively manage disasters.

Till recently, they didn’t even have deployment guidelines. In a few instances, they were deployed during elections. In one instance, they reached the disaster site without food, water, or tents for themselves. The local authorities had to give the same.

Up to June 2012, just seven states have constituted State Disaster Response Force. Even the local Regional Response Centres are ill equipped.

The impact can be seen at the local fire services level also. As per the Thirteenth Finance Commission, deficiencies in fire services are alarming. 97.54% of the country doesn’t have fire stations, 96.28% doesn’t have fire-fighting personnel, and 80.04% doesn’t have fire fighting and rescue vehicles. Shortage of trained manpower, vehicles, and equipment plague the existing fire service centers.

Locally, the states do have not mobile hospitals and trained trauma management doctors. There are no real medical facilities available for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear disasters at national level. This is seriously a pathetic state of affairs. Government bodies are showing no concern for human life.

Closing Thoughts

After reading the report, I realized that Indians have just one option at present – pray to God that disaster doesn’t strike in their region. The governments at national, state and district levels have shown a negligent attitude towards disaster management. This is a classic case – funds are available but nothing has been done to implement the plan. Indian citizens can check with the local politicians and government bodies to assess the level of preparedness for disaster management. If required, local bodies can be formed in different constituencies and societies to act as disaster management task force. As it is a question of citizen safety, public activism will help in developing adequate disaster management capabilities.

References:

CAG Report – Performance Audit Report on Disaster Management of India

 

Strategy For Funding Risk Management Departments

Organizations want risk managers to focus on reducing costs of doing business, especially the regulatory costs. However, when risk managers ask for resources and budgets for running the department, they have to compromise. Lack of budget is generally the main cause for not implementing enterprise risk management, doing strategic risk management, building a risk management culture and providing consulting.

Generally, the budgeting process starts in the last quarter of the year. When the budget committee is approving other revenue earning departments budgets, risk management department heads present a cost budget. This does not go down well with the budget approval committee. They cut ten to thirty per cent of the budget despite risk managers giving valid justifications.

After budget approval, risk managers spend the year trying to squeeze in as much as they can. Sometimes it results in limited coverage and high stress levels for risk managers. With the increasing focus on risk management, the heads of risk management departments need to form a strategy to obtain the required funding. Look at the tips below to navigate the tricky budget approval process.

1. Start at beginning of current year

Start preparing for next year at the beginning of the current year. Identify the long-term and short-term projects. Commence influencing the key stakeholders of the long-term projects from the first quarter of the current year. If risk managers are the last one to submit their budget, they are unlikely to get heard.

2. Analyse the reasons for past failures

Assess the reasons for non-approval of the budget in previous years. Was it because the management thinks risk management is unimportant, is concerned about costs or it harms the interests of the key political players in the organization. After determining the reason, formulate strategies to change the mind-set for next year’s project approval.

3. Build relationships with key political players

Chances are that risk managers focus on the budget committee members for approval. Instead, identify the key power holders within the organization. Identify their relationships with the budget committee members. Before influencing the budget committee members, build relationships with key power holders. Get their support for the risk management function by understanding their drivers and motives.

4. Participate in business strategy formation

Involve yourself with the business strategy group. Identify various risks of the changes in business strategy and recommend the mitigation costs for the same. Attempt to incorporate the risk management budget in the strategy implementation costs. Align risk management budget with corporate goals and strategy.

5. Calculate the Return on Investment (ROI) for various projects.

Robert Biskup wrote an excellent article on Corporate Compliance Insights – “Making the Bottom Line Case for Compliance: The ROI of a Robust Compliance Department”. The nine points give superb ways of calculating ROI. Use the methods to negotiate with the business teams as the department can give a clear demonstration of cost savings or profit earnings. Do ROI calculations for previous years’ projects to demonstrate the value that risk management departments brought to the table.

6. Make business teams bear the cost of the project

For the projects, identify the stakeholders in the business teams. Categorize the projects as critical, necessary and optional from risk management perspective. Sometimes, risk managers spend time doing optional projects at the expense of critical projects, as they cannot refuse powerful business heads. In such cases, present the advantages of getting the assignment done. If possible, check whether business team will merge the cost of desirable projects in its budget next year rather than have it in risk management budget.

7. Build flexibility in budgets

The budgets go haywire when unexpected risks arise or regulations change. Suddenly risk management departments are in fire fighting mode and regular work is ignored. That is bad for business, since other critical risks remain un-monitored. Hence, estimate different cost budgets with probability of various risks and disasters occurring. Present these as contingency budgets to the management and take advance approval for the same. Risk mitigation efforts are delayed when risk managers take approval after a disaster has occurred. Revise the budgets quarterly as the business budget changes.

Closing thoughts

 Generally, risk managers have a financial background so they are outstanding at preparing the budgets. However, problem occurs when they do not have the negotiation skills and political strategy in place. Last quarter efforts do not work because everyone is on the same bandwagon. Gain a head start by starting in the first quarter itself. Be the first one to get the required approvals, so that the function gets what it wants.

Related article: Political Strategy for Risk Management